Presence of muscle dysmorphia symptomology among male weightlifters

Tom Hildebrandt, David Schlundt, James Langenbucher, Tammy Chung

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


Limited research exists on muscle dysmorphia (MD) in men and in nonclinical populations. The current study evaluated types of body image disturbance among 237 male weightlifters. Latent class analysis of 8 measures of body image disturbance revealed 5 independent types of respondents: Dysmorphic, Muscle Concerned, Fat Concerned, Normal Behavioral, and Normal. One-way analysis of variance of independent measures of body image disturbance and associated psychopathology confirmed significant differences between groups. The Dysmorphic group reported a pattern of body image disturbance consistent with MD by displaying a high overall level of body image disturbance, symptoms of associated psychopathology, steroid use, and appearance-controlling behavior. Findings generally supported classifying MD as a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder and an obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder. Implications for studying body image disturbance in male weightlifters, and further evaluation of the MD diagnostic criteria are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-135
Number of pages9
JournalComprehensive Psychiatry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2006
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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