Probing the role of two hydrophobic active site residues in the human dihydrofolate reductase by site-directed mutagenesis

B. I. Schweitzer, S. Srimatkandada, H. Gritsman, R. Sheridan, R. Venkataraghavan, J. R. Bertino

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Abstract

In the X-ray structure of the human dihydrofolate reductase, phenylalanine 31 and phenylalanine 34 have been shown to be involved in hydrophobic interactions with bound substrates and inhibitors. Using oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis and a bacterial expression system producing the wild-type and mutant human dihydrofolate reductases at levels of 10% of the bacterial protein, we have constructed, expressed, and purified a serine 31 (S31) mutant and a serine 34 (S34) mutant. Fluorescence titration experiments indicated that S31 bound the substrate H2folate 10-fold tighter and the coenzyme NADPH 2-fold tighter than the wild-type human dihydrofolate reductase. The serine 31 mutation had little effect on the steady-state kinetic properties of the enzyme but produced a 100-fold increase in the dissociation constant (K(d)) for the inhibitor methotrexate. The serine 34 mutant had much greater alterations in its properties than S31; specifically, S34 had a 3-fold reduction in the K(m) for NADPH, a 24-fold increase in the K(m) for H2folate, a 3-fold reduction in the overall reaction rate k(cat), and an 80,000-fold increase in the K(d) for methotrexate. In addition, the pH dependence of the steady-state kinetic parameters of S34 were different from that of the wild-type enzyme. These results suggest that phenylalanine 31 and phenylalanine 34 make very ifferent contributions to ligand binding and catalysis in the human dihydrofolate reductase.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)20786-20795
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume264
Issue number34
StatePublished - 1989
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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