Process simulation using finite element method - prediction of cutting forces, tool stresses and temperatures in high-speed flat end milling

Tugrul Özel, Taylan Altan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

187 Scopus citations


End milling of die/mold steels is a highly demanding operation because of the temperatures and stresses generated on the cutting tool due to high workpiece hardness. Modeling and simulation of cutting processes have the potential for improving cutting tool designs and selecting optimum conditions, especially in advanced applications such as high-speed milling. The main objective of this study was to develop a methodology for simulating the cutting process in flat end milling operation and predicting chip flow, cutting forces, tool stresses and temperatures using finite element analysis (FEA). As an application, machining of P-20 mold steel at 30 HRC hardness using uncoated carbide tooling was investigated. Using the commercially available software DEFORM-2D, previously developed flow stress data of the workpiece material and friction at the chip-tool contact at high deformation rates and temperatures were used. A modular representation of undeformed chip geometry was used by utilizing plane strain and axisymmetric workpiece deformation models in order to predict chip formation at the primary and secondary cutting edges of the flat end milling insert. Dry machining experiments for slot milling were conducted using single insert flat end mills with a straight cutting edge (i.e. null helix angle). Comparisons of predicted cutting forces with the measured forces showed reasonable agreement and indicate that the tool stresses and temperatures are also predicted with acceptable accuracy. The highest tool temperatures were predicted at the primary cutting edge of the flat end mill insert regardless of cutting conditions. These temperatures increase wear development at the primary cutting edge. However, the highest tool stresses were predicted at the secondary (around corner radius) cutting edge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)713-738
Number of pages26
JournalInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 2000
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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