We have found that the novel phospholipid diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP), identified in bacteria, yeast, and plants, but not in mammalian cells, is able to potently activate macrophages for enhanced secretion of arachidonate metabolites, a key event in the immunoinflammatory response of leukocytes. Macrophage responses to DGPP are specific and are not mediated by its conversion into other putative lipid mediators such as phosphatidic acid, lysophosphatidic acid, or diacylglycerol. The responses to DGPP are compatible with a receptor-recognition event because they are blocked by suramin. Intracellular signaling initiated by DGPP includes phosphorylation and activation of the Group IV cytosolic phospholipase A2 and of the extracellular-signal regulated p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p44 MAPK, and membrane translocation of the protein kinase C isoenzymes α, ε, δ. These results establish DGPP as a novel macrophage-activating factor and suggest a potential role for this compound in triggering homeostatic cellular responses.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology