Reactive Hydrothermal Liquid-Phase Densification (rHLPD) of Ceramics – A Study of the BaTiO3[TiO2] Composite System

Cekdar Vakifahmetoglu, Jean Francois Anger, Vahit Atakan, Sean Quinn, Surojit Gupta, Qinghua Li, Ling Tang, Richard E. Riman

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27 Scopus citations


A densification process called reactive hydrothermal liquid-phase densification (rHLPD), based on principles of hydrothermal reaction, infiltration, reactive crystallization, and liquid-phase sintering, is presented. rHLPD can be used to form monolithic ceramic components at low temperatures. The densification of barium titanate–titania composite monoliths was studied to demonstrate proof of concept for this densification model. Permeable, green titania (anatase) compacts were infiltrated with aqueous barium hydroxide solutions and reacted under hydrothermal conditions in the temperature range 90°C–240°C. The effects of reaction time and temperature on the conversion of titania (anatase) into barium titanate were studied. Utilizing a 72 h reaction at 240°C between l.0 M Ba(OH)2, an anatase (TiO2) powder compact, and a corresponding Ba/Ti ratio of 1.5, it was possible to crystallize a composite 95 wt% (88 mol%) BaTiO3 and 5 wt% (12 mol%) TiO2. The composite had a relative density of ~90% with a compressive strength of 172 ± 21 MPa and a flexural strength of 49 ± 4 MPa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3893-3901
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


  • barium titanate
  • densification
  • hydrothermal process
  • mechanical properties


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