Regulation of IFN regulatory factor-7 and IFN-α production by enveloped virus and lipopolysaccharide in human plasmacytoid dendritic cells

Jihong Dai, Nicholas J. Megjugorac, Sheela B. Amrute, Patricia Fitzgerald-Bocarsly

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123 Scopus citations

Abstract

Human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) are a major source of IFN-α upon exposure to enveloped viruses and TLR-7 and TLR-9 ligands. Although IFN regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7) is known to play an essential role in virus-activated transcription of IFN-α genes, the molecular mechanisms of IFN-α production in human PDC remain poorly understood. We and others have recently reported high constitutive levels of IRF-7 expression in PDC as compared with other PBMC. In this study, we demonstrate that both LPS and HSV up-regulate the expression of IRF-7 in PDC, and that this enhancement of IRF-7 is dependent on NF-κB activation. The NF-κB inhibitors MG132 and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate efficiently inhibited the induction of IRF-7 by HSV or LPS, and also down-regulated the constitutive expression of IRF-7 in PDC and blocked the HSV-induced production of IFN-α. In addition, we found that nuclear translocation of IRF-7 occurred rapidly in response to HSV stimulation, but not in response to LPS, which is consistent with the stimulation of IFN-α production by virus and not by LPS. Although LPS by itself was not able to induce IFN-α production, it led to rapid up-regulation of TLR-4 on PDC and increased the magnitude and accelerated the kinetics of HSV-induced IFN-α production in PDC, providing a mechanism that might be operative in a scenario of mixed infection. In contrast to the current concept of IFN-α regulation established in cell lines, this study strongly supports the immediate availability of high constitutive levels of IRF-7 expression in PDC, and suggests an activation required for IRF-7 that contributes to IFN-α production in virus-stimulated PDC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1535-1548
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Immunology
Volume173
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2004

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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