Renal and Cardiac Implications of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: The State of the Science

Joseph E. Cruz, Tania Ahuja, Mary Barna Bridgeman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objective: To review the role of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), including the effects on renal and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. Data Sources: A literature search of MEDLINE databases (1964 through May 2018) was conducted utilizing key words sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and diabetes; additional limits for drug names were added. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Available English-language data from reviews, abstracts, presentations, and clinical trials of use of SGLT2 therapy specifically detailing outcomes on CV and renal disease in humans were reviewed. Data Synthesis: This review will explore the role of the SGLT2 inhibitors on CV and renal outcomes in patients with T2DM. Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: A paradigm shift regarding the regulation of medications for the treatment of T2DM has resulted in the need for CV outcomes data as part of the drug approval process. Reduction of major CV events and progression of nephropathy in patients with T2DM represent major outcomes of clinical significance. Few medications have been able to establish a reduction in these end points; data for the use of SGLT2 inhibitors are favorable in this regard. Conclusion: The SGLT2 inhibitors represents a class of medications that reduce glucose levels via a novel and complementary mechanism. Emerging evidence suggests a plausible explanation for the observed reduction in adverse renal and CV outcomes in recent clinical trials. Questions remain whether these agents reduce renal disease risk greater than achievement of the same glycemic goals as other antidiabetics and whether CV and renal benefits are reproducible in high-risk patients with chronic kidney disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1238-1249
Number of pages12
JournalAnnals of Pharmacotherapy
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology (medical)


  • canagliflozin
  • chronic kidney disease
  • dapagliflozin
  • diabetes mellitus
  • empagliflozin
  • endocrinology
  • ertugliflozin
  • nephrology
  • SGLT2 inhibitors


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