Background: Over one million Americans are infected with HIV, and approximately 300,000 are women. Overall health in HIV infected persons has improved, and many seropositive women desire children. This study describes the reproductive outcomes of HIV seropositive women treated by assisted reproduction at our center and compares their clinical results with age-matched HIV seronegative controls. Methods: From January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2011, 36 HIV seropositive women received treatment with in vitro fertilization (IVF) at a single center. The mean age at start of fertility treatment was 37.7±4.8 years. At presentation, 92% of seropositive women were using antiretrovirals and all had undetectable viral loads at time of cycle initiation. Clinical outcomes of seropositive women were compared in a one-to-one ratio to those of randomly selected age-matched seronegative controls undergoing treatment for male factor infertility during the same time period. Comparisons were stratified by age - women less than 35 and greater than 35 years of age. Results: Fifteen treatment cycles resulted in live births (21 infants born without HIV infection). HIV seropositive and seronegative women < 35 years of age had nearly identical IVF clinical outcome parameters, including clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates. For women 35 years of age or older, baseline serum estradiol levels and live birth rates were significantly lower in HIV seropositive women. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the presence of well-controlled HIV infection does not impair fertility treatment in women undergoing IVF. Virally infected women should be encouraged to seek treatment in appropriate cases.
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