Retinal organoid technology: Where are we now?

Zuming Zhang, Zihui Xu, Fa Yuan, Kangxin Jin, Mengqing Xiang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


It is difficult to regenerate mammalian retinal cells once the adult retina is damaged, and current clinical approaches to retinal damages are very limited. The introduction of the retinal or-ganoid technique empowers researchers to study the molecular mechanisms controlling retinal de-velopment, explore the pathogenesis of retinal diseases, develop novel treatment options, and pur-sue cell/tissue transplantation under a certain genetic background. Here, we revisit the historical background of retinal organoid technology, categorize current methods of organoid induction, and outline the obstacles and potential solutions to next‐generation retinal organoids. Meanwhile, we recapitulate recent research progress in cell/tissue transplantation to treat retinal diseases, and dis-cuss the pros and cons of transplanting single‐cell suspension versus retinal organoid sheet for cell therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number10244
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number19
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


  • Disease models
  • Inner cell layer degeneration
  • Retinal development
  • Retinal organoid
  • Stem cells
  • Transplantation


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