Roles of OGG1 in transcriptional regulation and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis

Harini Sampath, R. Stephen Lloyd

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cellular damage produced by conditions generating oxidative stress have far-reaching implications in human disease that encompass, but are not restricted to aging, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, airway inflammation/asthma, cancer, and metabolic syndrome including visceral obesity, insulin resistance, fatty liver disease, and dyslipidemia. Although there are numerous sources and cellular targets of oxidative stress, this review will highlight literature that has investigated downstream consequences of oxidatively-induced DNA damage in both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The presence of such damage can in turn, directly and indirectly modulate cellular transcriptional and repair responses to such stressors. As such, the persistence of base damage can serve as a key regulator in coordinated gene-response cascades. Conversely, repair of these DNA lesions serves as both a suppressor of mutagenesis and by inference carcinogenesis, and as a signal for the cessation of ongoing oxidative stress. A key enzyme in all these processes is 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1), which, via non-catalytic binding to oxidatively-induced DNA damage in promoter regions, serves as a nucleation site around which changes in large-scale regulation of inflammation-associated gene expression can occur. Further, the catalytic function of OGG1 can alter the three-dimensional structure of specialized DNA sequences, leading to changes in transcriptional profiles. This review will concentrate on adverse deleterious health effects that are associated with both the diminution of OGG1 activity via population-specific polymorphic variants and the complete loss of OGG1 in murine models. This mouse model displays diet- and age-related induction of metabolic syndrome, highlighting a key role for OGG1 in protecting against these phenotypes. Conversely, recent investigations using murine models having enhanced global expression of a mitochondrial-targeted OGG1 demonstrate that they are highly resistant to diet-induced disease. These data suggest strategies through which therapeutic interventions could be designed for reducing or limiting adverse human health consequences to these ubiquitous stressors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102667
JournalDNA Repair
Volume81
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Keywords

  • Base excision repair
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Mitochondrial DNA repair

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