Background: ONC201 is a small molecule antagonist of DRD2, a G protein-coupled receptor overexpressed in several malignancies, that has prolonged antitumor efficacy and immunomodulatory properties in preclinical models. The first-in-human trial of ONC201 previously established a recommended phase II dose (RP2D) of 625 mg once every three weeks. Here, we report the results of a phase I study that evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of weekly ONC201. Methods: Patients ≥ 18 years old with an advanced solid tumor refractory to standard treatment were enrolled. Dose escalation proceeded with a 3 + 3 design from 375 mg to 625 mg of ONC201. One cycle, also the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) window, was 21 days. The primary endpoint was to determine the RP2D of weekly ONC201, which was confirmed in an 11-patient dose expansion cohort. Results: Twenty patients were enrolled: three at 375 mg and 17 at 625 mg of ONC201. The RP2D was defined as 625 mg with no DLT, treatment discontinuation, or dose modifications due to drug-related toxicity. PK profiles were consistent with every-three-week dosing and similar between the first and fourth dose. Serum prolactin and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 induction were detected, along with intratumoral integrated stress response activation and infiltration of granzyme B+ Natural Killer cells. Induction of immune cytokines and effectors was higher in patients who received ONC201 once weekly versus once every three weeks. Stable disease of > 6 months was observed in several prostate and endometrial cancer patients. Conclusions: Weekly, oral ONC201 is well-tolerated and results in enhanced immunostimulatory activity that warrants further investigation. Trial registration: NCT02250781 (Oral ONC201 in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors), NCT02324621 (Continuation of Oral ONC201 in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Allergy
- Molecular Medicine
- Cancer Research
- Solid tumors