Satisfaction and healthcare utilization of transgender and gender non-conforming individuals in NYC: A community-based participatory study

Anita E. Radix, Corina Lelutiu-Weinberger, Kristi E. Gamarel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations


Purpose: Transgender and gender non-conforming (TGNC) individuals face high levels of discrimination and mistreatment, including within social and medical service settings, which may lead to negative health and psychosocial sequelae. Given the many barriers to competent care, we sought to determine points of intervention by assessing the current needs, satisfaction, and health care utilization of TGNC individuals in New York City as reported by TGNC individuals. Methods: In January 2013, fifty TGNC individuals were recruited via flyers and direct referrals from healthcare professionals within community spaces and pertinent venues. We administered a brief survey and conducted four focus groups exploring participants' health care utilization and perceived barriers to care, routine care, hormone and silicone use, and recommendations for improving transgender services. Results: Participants were 18- to 64-years-old, racially/ethnically diverse, and the majority were medically insured, underwent routine health care in the last year, and received an HIV test in their lifetime. A significant proportion reported taking hormones prescribed by a medical provider and were in the care of knowledgeable providers. Participants perceived four areas where barriers persisted: utilization of preventive services, access to transition-related procedures, access to legal assistance, and inclusion of TGNC individuals in public health education and campaigns. Conclusions: Structural interventions are needed, such as comprehensive provider training programs for all level staff to better serve the needs of TGNC individuals, increase service utilization and improve wellbeing, while effecting lasting institutional change. Service provision establishments should hire more TGNC staff and integrate transgender care into existing practices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)302-308
Number of pages7
JournalLGBT health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Dermatology
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Urology


  • health care barriers
  • policy and practice changes
  • transgender and gender non-conforming


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