Self development and self-conscious emotions.

M. Lewis, M. W. Sullivan, C. Stanger, M. Weiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

320 Scopus citations


In each of 2 studies, the mirror-rouge technique was used to differentiate children into those who showed self-recognition and those who did not. In Study 1, 27 children (aged 9-24 months) were observed in 2 experimental situations thought to differentially elicit fear and embarrassment behaviors. In Study 2, 44 children (aged 22 months) were seen in the situations of Study 1 and 3 additional contexts thought to elicit embarrassment behavior. The results of both studies indicate that embarrassment but not wariness was related to self-recognition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146-156
Number of pages11
JournalChild development
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1989

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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