Heart failure (HF) is a frequent occurrence in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and predicts poor survival. Serum bicarbonate is associated with increased rates of HF in CKD; however, the mechanisms leading to this association are incompletely understood. This study aims to assess whether serum bicarbonate is independently associated with structural and functional cardiac abnormalities in CKD. Methods: The association between serum bicarbonate and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH), LV mass indexed to height 2.7 , LV geometry, ejection fraction (EF) and diastolic dysfunction was assessed in 3,483 participants without NYHA class III/IV HF, enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study. Results: The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 42.5 ± 17 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . The overall prevalence of LVH was 51.2%, with 57.8, 50.9 and 47.7% for bicarbonate categories <22, 22-26 and >26 mmol/l, respectively. Participants with low bicarbonate were more likely to have LVH and abnormal LV geometry (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.07- 1.64, and OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.14-2.16, respectively). However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for demographics, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, medications and kidney function (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.66-1.72, and OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.64-2.51, respectively). No association was found between bicarbonate and systolic or diastolic dysfunction. During follow-up, no significant changes in LV mass or EF were observed in any bicarbonate strata. Conclusions: In a large CKD study, serum bicarbonate was associated with LV mass and concentric LVH; however, this association was attenuated after adjustment for clinical factors suggesting that the observed cardiac effects are mediated through yet unknown mechanisms.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Chronic kidney disease
- Left ventricular geometry
- Left ventricular hypertrophy
- Serum bicarbonate