Sex differences in the management and long-term outcome of acute myocardial infarction: A statewide study

John B. Kostis, Alan C. Wilson, Kenneth O'Dowd, Patrice Gregory, Sandra Chelton, Nora M. Cosgrove, Anu Chirala, Ting Cui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

227 Scopus citations


Background: We wished to evaluate whether differences in the rate of invasive cardiac procedures between men and women with acute myocardial infarction are associated with different short- and long-term mortality. Methods and Results: The database (Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System, MIDAS) included all discharges for the years 1986 and 1987 with the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in New Jersey, based on the New Jersey hospital discharge data system (MIDS/UB-82). Accuracy of the data was evaluated by auditing 726 randomly selected charts. The variables examined included age, sex, race, comorbidity (anemia, chronic liver disease, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, hypertension, prior myocardial infarction, complications (left ventricular dysfunction, arrhythmias, conduction defects), insurance status, performance of cardiac catheterization, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and survival up to 3 years. Women were older, had longer hospital stay, and were more likely than men to have anemia, diabetes, hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction, and Medicare or Medicaid insurance coverage. They were less likely than men to be admitted to a hospital equipped to perform invasive procedures or to have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic liver disease, prior myocardial infarction, or arrhythmias. After adjustment for these differences, women were less likely than men to have cardiac catheterization. Cardiac catheterization was associated with lower mortality. Women up to age 70 had higher 3-year death rates than men after adjustment for age, race, comorbidity, complications, and insurance type. This difference between men and women was somewhat diminished after the performance of cardiac catheterization and revascularization was taken into account. Unadjusted mortality was high in this study group. Conclusions: Women with acute myocardial infarction are less likely to have invasive cardiac procedures and have higher 3-year adjusted death rate up to age 70 than men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1715-1730
Number of pages16
Issue number4 I
StatePublished - Oct 1994

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


  • catheterization
  • mortality
  • myocardial infarction
  • women


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