Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced exocytosis is one of the primary immune responses of the Limulus granulocyte (GR). Exocytosis can be mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein)-linked surface receptors that activate phospholipase C (PLC) to produce inositol 1,4,5- triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+](i)), which can lead to exocytosis. We used activators and inhibitors of known signal transduction pathways to investigate the signaling pathway responsible for LPS-induced exocytosis in the GR. These compounds have been shown to similarly effect pathways in vertebrate and invertebrate systems and this assumption is made here. Pretreatment of GRs with cholera and pertussis toxins, which modulate G-proteins, and U73122, which inhibits PLC, inhibited LPS-induced exocytosis, but pretreatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin did not. In contrast, exocytosis was induced with fluoride (a G-protein activator) and thapsigargin with Mg2+ (an inhibitor of endomembranous Ca2+-ATPase). Exocytosis was not induced by phorbol ester, which mimics DAG to activate protein kinase C (PKC) and it was not effected by ethanol or chelerythrine, which inhibit phospholipase D and PKC, respectively. Microinjection of GRs with different concentrations of IP3, an IP3 analog (DL-2,3,6,trideoxy-myo-inositol 1,4,5 triphosphate), Mg2+, or Ca2+ induced different percentages of exocytosis in individual cells, while HEPES buffer did not. Microfluorometric analysis of intracellular Mg2+ ([Mg2+](i)) and [Ca2+](i), using the dyes Mag Fura-2AM and Calcium Green 5N, respectively, revealed [Mg2+](i) and [Ca2+](i) fluxes during LPS- induced exocytosis. This study suggests that LPS induces exocytosis in the Limulus GR through activation of G-protein-coupled receptors, which stimulate the IP3 signaling pathway to induce both [Ca2+](i) and [Mg2+](i) fluxes to facilitate vesicular and plasma membrane fusion. This is the first demonstration of the signal transduction pathway responsible for the primary immune response of the GR.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental Biology