Site-Directed Mutations in Tyrosine 195 of Cyclodextrin Glycosyltransferase from Bacillus Circulans Strain 251 Affect Activity and Product Specificity

Dirk Penningay, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Boris Strokopytov, Henriette J. Rozeboom, Catherine L. Lawson, Bauke W. Dijkstra, Catherine L. Lawson, Jack Bergsma

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Tyrosine 195 is located in the center of the active site cleft of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (EC from Bacillus circulans strain 251. Alignment of amino acid sequences of CGTases and a-amylases, and the analysis of the binding mode of the substrate analogue acarbose in the active site cleft [Strokopytov, B., et al. (1995) Biochemistry 34, (in press)], suggested that Tyrl95 plays an important role in cyclization of oligosaccharides. Tyrl95 therefore was replaced with Phe (Y195F), Trp (Y195W), Leu (Y195L), and Gly (Y195G). Mutant proteins were purified and crystallized, and their X-ray structures were determined at 2.5-2.6 Å resolution, allowing a detailed comparison of their biochemical properties and three-dimensional structures with those of the wild-type CGTase protein. The mutant proteins possessed significantly reduced cyclodextrin forming and coupling activities but were not negatively affected in the disproportionation and saccharifying reactions. Also under production process conditions, after a 45 h incubation with a 10% starch solution, the Y195W, Y195L, and Y195G mutants showed a lower overall conversion of starch into cyclodextrins. These mutants produced a considerable amount of linear maltooligosaccharides. The presence of aromatic amino acids (Tyr or Phe) at the Tyrl95 position thus appears to be of crucial importance for an efficient cyclization reaction, virtually preventing the formation of linear products. Mass spectrometry of the Y195L reaction mixture, but not that of the other mutants and the wild type, revealed a shift toward the synthesis (in low yields) of larger products, especially of (β- and γ- (but no α-) cyclodextrins and minor amounts of δ-, ϵ-, ζ- and η-cyclodextrins. This again points to an important role for the residue at position 195 in the formation of cyclic products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3368-3376
Number of pages9
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry


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