Smoking and Drinking During Pregnancy: Their Effects on Preterm Birth

Patricia H. Shiono, Mark A. Klebanoff, George G. Rhoads

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

171 Scopus citations


The effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on the length of gestation were examined in a prospective study of 30,596 pregnant women in northern California. Preterm births (<37 weeks' gestation) were 20% more common in women smoking at least one pack of cigarettes per day. This effect was strongest for births occurring before 33 weeks, where the excess was 60%. This excess was not accounted for by differences in maternal age, education, ethnicity, time prenatal care began, drinking during pregnancy, or eight other potential confounding factors. The results indicate a probable effect of smoking on the time of parturition, which is additional to its well-known effect on intrauterine growth retardation. The effect of alcohol consumption on preterm births was also examined, but no consistent trends were found.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)82-84
Number of pages3
JournalJAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 3 1986
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

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