Background: Cigarette smoking is thought to increase the risk of Crohn’s disease (CD) and exacerbate the disease course, with opposite roles in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, these findings are from Western populations, and the association between smoking and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been well studied in Asia. Aims: We aimed to compare the prevalence of smoking at diagnosis between IBD cases and controls recruited in China, India, and the USA, and to investigate the impact of smoking on disease outcomes. Methods: We recruited IBD cases and controls between 2014 and 2018. All participants completed a questionnaire about demographic characteristics, environmental risk factors and IBD history. Results: We recruited 337 participants from China, 194 from India, and 645 from the USA. In China, CD cases were less likely than controls to be current smokers (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] 0.4 [0.2–0.9]). There was no association between current or former smoking and CD in the USA. In China and the USA, UC cases were more likely to be former smokers than controls (China 14.6 [3.3–64.8]; USA 1.8 [1.0–3.3]). In India, both CD and UC had similar current smoking status to controls at diagnosis. Current smoking at diagnosis was significantly associated with greater use of immunosuppressants (4.4 [1.1–18.1]) in CD cases in China. Conclusions: We found heterogeneity in the associations of smoking and IBD risk and outcomes between China, India, and the USA. Further study with more adequate sample size and more uniform definition of smoking status is warranted.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Crohn’s disease
- Ulcerative colitis