Treatment of hepatocytes with agonists which act via the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3), results in increases of cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) which are manifest as a series of discrete [Ca2+]i transients or oscillations. With increasing agonist dose [Ca2+]i osciliation frequency increases and the initial latent period decreases, but the amplitude of the [Ca2+]i oscillations remains constant. Studies of these [Ca2+]i oscillations at the subcellular level have indicated that the [Ca2+]i changes do not occur synchronously throughout the cell, but initiate at a specific subcellular domain, adjacent to a region of the plasma membrane, and then propagate through the cell as a [Ca2+]i wave. For a given cell, the locus of [Ca2+]i wave initiation is constant for every oscillation in a series and is also identical when the cell is sequentially stimulated with different agonists or when the phospholipase C-linked G protein is activated directly using AIF4-. The kinetics of the [Ca2+]i waves indicate that a Ca2+-activated mechanism is involved in propagating the oscillatory [Ca2+]i increases throughout the cell, and the data appear to be most consistent with a process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. It is proposed that the ability to propagate [Ca2+]i oscillations into regions of the cell distal to the region in which the signal transduction apparatus is localized could serve an important function in allowing all parts of the cell to respond to the stimulus.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology