Spatiotemporal Control Strategies for Bone Formation through Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Approaches

Kristopher A. White, Ronke M. Olabisi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Global increases in life expectancy drive increasing demands for bone regeneration. The gold standard for surgical bone repair is autografting, which enjoys excellent clinical outcomes; however, it possesses significant drawbacks including donor site morbidity and limited availability. Although collagen sponges delivered with bone morphogenetic protein, type 2 (BMP2) are a common alternative or supplement, they do not efficiently retain BMP2, necessitating extremely high doses to elicit bone formation. Hence, reports of BMP2 complications are rising, including cancer promotion and ectopic bone formation, the latter inducing complications such as breathing difficulties and neurologic impairments. Thus, efforts to exert spatial control over bone formation are increasing. Several tissue engineering approaches have demonstrated the potential for targeted and controlled bone formation. These approaches include biomaterial scaffolds derived from synthetic sources, e.g., calcium phosphates or polymers; natural sources, e.g., bone or seashell; and immobilized biofactors, e.g., BMP2. Although BMP2 is the only protein clinically approved for use in a surgical device, there are several proteins, small molecules, and growth factors that show promise in tissue engineering applications. This review profiles the tissue engineering advances in achieving control over the location and onset of bone formation (spatiotemporal control) toward avoiding the complications associated with BMP2.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1801044
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 24 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


  • biomaterials
  • bones
  • scaffold patterning
  • spatiotemporal control
  • tissue engineering


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