Stability of postoperative delirium psychomotor subtypes in individuals with hip fracture

Jennifer S. Albrecht, Edward R. Marcantonio, Darren M. Roffey, Denise Orwig, Jay Magaziner, Michael Terrin, Jeffrey L. Carson, Erik Barr, Jessica P. Brown, Emma G. Gentry, Ann L. Gruber-Baldini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


Objectives To determine the stability of psychomotor subtypes of delirium over time and identify characteristics associated with delirium psychomotor subtypes in individuals undergoing surgical repair of hip fracture. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Transfusion Trigger Trial for Functional Outcomes in Cardiovascular Patients Undergoing Surgical Hip Fracture Repair Cognitive Ancillary Study was conducted at 13 participating sites from 2008 to 2009. Participants Individuals who had undergone surgical repair of hip fracture (N = 139). Measurements Delirium was assessed up to four times postoperatively using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale. Psychomotor subtypes of delirium were categorized as hypoactive, hyperactive, mixed, and normal psychomotor activity. Results Incidence of postoperative delirium was 41% (n = 57). Of 90 CAM-positive (CAM+) observations, 56% were hypoactive, 10% were hyperactive, 21% were mixed, and 14% had normal psychomotor symptoms. Of 26 participants with more than one CAM+ assessment, 50% maintained subtype stability over time. Participants with hypoactive or normal psychomotor symptoms (n = 31) were less likely to have chart documentation of delirium than participants with any hyperactive symptoms (n = 19) (22% vs 58%, P =.009). Conclusion Psychomotor subtypes of delirium often fluctuate from assessment to assessment, rather than representing fixed categories of delirium. Hypoactive delirium is the most common presentation of delirium but is the least likely to be documented by healthcare providers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)970-976
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


  • Confusion Assessment Method
  • Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale
  • delirium
  • hip fracture
  • psychomotor subtypes


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