An efficient protocol is described for the stable genetic transformation of Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) using Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector. We have employed the disarmed A. tumefaciens LBA4404 encoding a synthetic green fluorescent protein reporter gene that is further controlled by an enhanced cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Stably transformed E. californica cells appear 3 weeks after initial cocultivation of A. tumefaciens with poppy leaves, stems, or roots. Transformed poppy calli were visualized by exposure to long-wave UV or blue light and analyzed in detail by fluorescent microscopy and laser-scanning microscopy. Moreover, green fluorescent calli have been maintained through continual subculture and grow well either on Gamborg's B5 agarose or liquid medium.
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