Stakeholder contributions to assessment, monitoring, and conservation of threatened species: black skimmer and red knot as case studies

Joanna Burger, Michael Gochfeld, Larry Niles, Nellie Tsipoura, David Mizrahi, Amanda Dey, Christian Jeitner, Taryn Pittfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Stakeholder contributions to conservation projects often occur during the problem formulation stage, yet the role of stakeholders throughout the process is seldom considered. We examine the diversity of state and federal agencies, conservation organizations, other non-governmental organizations, environmental justice communities, consultants, industry, and the general public in the conservation of red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) and black skimmer (Rynchops niger) in New Jersey. We suggest that (1) governmental agencies provide the legal, regulatory, and management framework, but it is often the universities, conservation organizations, consultants, and the public that conduct the research and perform activities that lead to increased research and conservation efforts; (2) departments within agencies may have conflicting mandates, making it difficult to resolve differences in actions; (3) there is often conflict among and within state agencies and conservation organizations about roles and priorities; and (4) the role of the public is critical to ongoing research and conservation efforts. Identification of all the relevant stakeholders is necessary to recognizing competing claims, identifying the threats, deciding how to manage the threats, and enhancing population viability. Conflicts occur even within an agency when one department oversees science and protection of populations and another oversees and fosters an industry (aquaculture or fisheries, or permits for off-road vehicles). Conflicts also occur between resource agencies, industry, and conservation organizations. Recognizing the different stakeholders and their mandates, and encouraging participation in the process, leads to a better understanding of the threats, risks, and possible solutions when conflicts arise. Tracking stakeholder viewpoints and actions can lead to increased involvement and conflict resolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number60
JournalEnvironmental monitoring and assessment
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


  • Coastal birds
  • Conservation
  • Participatory research
  • Stakeholder participation


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