Advances in understanding age-related changes in articular cartilage, joint homeostasis, the natural healing process after cartilage injury, and improved standards for evaluation of a joint surface made the ultimate goal of cartilage repair a possibility. New strategies for enhancement of articular cartilages' limited healing potential and biologic regeneration include advances in tissue engineering and the use of electromagnetic fields. This article reviews developments in basic science and clinical research made with these emerging technologies concerning treatment of articular cartilage defects and treatment of osteoarthritis of the ankle.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine