Strategic Development for Middle School Students Struggling With Fractions: Assessment and Intervention

Dake Zhang, Pamela Stecker, Sloan Huckabee, Rhonda Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Research has suggested that different strategies used when solving fraction problems are highly correlated with students’ problem-solving accuracy. This study (a) utilized latent profile modeling to classify students into three different strategic developmental levels in solving fraction comparison problems and (b) accordingly provided differentiated strategic training for students starting from two different strategic developmental levels. In Study 1 we assessed 49 middle school students’ performance on fraction comparison problems and categorized students into three clusters of strategic developmental clusters: a cross-multiplication cluster with the highest accuracy, a representation strategy cluster with medium accuracy, and a whole-number strategy cluster with the lowest accuracy. Based on the strategic developmental levels identified in Study 1, in Study 2 we selected three students from the whole-number strategy cluster and another three students from the representation strategy cluster and implemented a differentiated strategic training intervention within a multiple-baseline design. Results showed that both groups of students transitioned from less advanced to more advanced strategies and improved their problem-solving accuracy during the posttest, the maintenance test, and the generalization test.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)515-531
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of learning disabilities
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Education
  • Health Professions(all)


  • assessment
  • at risk
  • intervention
  • learning difficulties
  • mathematics


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