Structural diversity and concentration dependence of pyrazine formation: Exogenous amino substrates and reaction parameters during thermal processing of L-alanyl-L-glutamine Amadori compound

Xue Xia, Yun Zhai, Heping Cui, Han Zhang, Khizar Hayat, Xiaoming Zhang, Chi Tang Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Amadori compound of glucose and L-alanyl-L-glutamine (Ala-Gln-ARP) was prepared and characterized by UPLC-MS/MS and NMR. There were no pyrazines produced by heated Ala-Gln-ARP alone due to the asynchronicity of regenerated L-alanyl-L-glutamine and α-dicarbonyl compounds. High temperature (130 °C) and long reaction time could facilitate the 2,5-dimethylpyrazine formation at a small concentration (33.4 ± 3.47 μg/L). The exogenous amino substrates would lower the formation temperature of pyrazines and make it to be generated effectively. Extra supplied L-alanyl-L-glutamine could generate 2,5-dimethylpyrazine at 110 °C, while higher temperature of 140 °C could strengthen the formation of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (793 ± 119 μg/L) and stimulate the generation of other pyrazines, including methylpyrazine and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine. The exogenous alanine, glutamic acid, and glutamine was also beneficial to enhance the pyrazines formation, especially the glutamic acid. Furthermore, alkaline pH of thermal reaction made pyrazines increase significantly than in neutral medium and further enriched their species such as unsubstituted pyrazine and trimethylpyrazine.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number133144
JournalFood Chemistry
Volume390
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 1 2022

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Food Science

Keywords

  • Amadori compound
  • L-Alanyl-L-glutamine
  • Pyrazine
  • Thermal processing flavor

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