An area roughly 9 × 105 km2 within northwest Arabia Terra contains several depressions interpreted to be supervolcanic calderas, contained within a chemical province considered consistent with large-scale igneous processes. Despite the underlying global significance to climate and geology, the supervolcanic hypothesis is yet to be tested with comprehensive compositional or geophysical analyses. Here we present geochemical evidence consistent with regional-scale supervolcanic resurfacing, with associated eruptions capable of degassing a climate-altering ∼108 kg of sulfur phases. Through gravitational modeling, we find evidence of low-density pyroclastic loading within this region, and a low elastic thickness, suggestive of a higher heat flow during the eruptive process. Our geochemical observations within this region reinforce its compositional uniqueness compared to contemporaneous volcanoes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science
- Remote sensing