BACKGROUND: Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is highly effective in preventing TB disease; however, its long-term benefit in household contacts (HHCs) of infectious TB cases is unclear.METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of two household contact studies in Vitoria, ES, Brazil, between 2008 and 2015. Households with smear-positive, culture-proven TB disease were enrolled. Eligible HHCs with tuberculin skin test (TST) indurations of ≥10 mm were referred to local TB clinics and IPT was started according to national guidelines. We reviewed the national dataset information system in January 2020 to identify HHCs with a diagnosis of TB disease. Time to event and Cox proportional regression analysis were conducted to identify factors associated with TB disease.RESULTS: Of the 1097 HHCs enrolled, 654 (60%) had TST ≥10 mm; 160 (24%) initiated IPT, of whom 115 (71.9%) completed IPT, which accounts for an overall completion rate of 18% among the population at risk; 42 (6%) TB cases were identified. IPT was associated with a 71% decrease in TB disease rates (HR 0.29, 95% CI 0.10-0.82; P = 0.02) among HHCs with TST ≥10 mm. IPT effect was sustained, as TB cases in HHCs without IPT occurred along the 7.9-year follow-up, whereas all four TB cases in HHCs with IPT were diagnosed within the first 3 years after exposureCONCLUSION: Isoniazid provides long-term protection for TB disease in household contacts of culture-proven TB cases.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease|
|State||Published - May 1 2022|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Infectious Diseases