The construction of a biomaterial matrix with biological properties is of great importance to developing functional materials for clinical use. However, the site-specific immobilization of growth factors to endow materials with bioactivities has been a challenge to date. Considering the wide existence of glycosylation in mammalian proteins or recombinant proteins, we establish a bioaffinity-based protein immobilization strategy (bioanchoring method) utilizing the native sugar-lectin interaction between concanavalin A (Con A) and the oligosaccharide chain on glycosylated bone morphogenetic protein-2 (GBMP-2). The interaction realizes the site-specific immobilization of GBMP-2 to a substrate modified with Con A while preserving its bioactivity in a sustained and highly efficient way, as evidenced by its enhanced ability to induce osteodifferentiation compared with that of the soluble GBMP-2. Moreover, the surface with Con A-bioanchored GBMP-2 can be reused to stimulate multiple batches of C2C12 cells to differentiate almost to the same degree. Even after 4 month storage at 4 °C in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), the Con A-bioanchored GBMP-2 still maintains the bioactivity to stimulate the differentiation of C2C12 cells. Furthermore, the ectopic ossification test proves the in vivo bioactivity of bioanchored GBMP-2. Overall, our results demonstrate that the tag-free and site (i.e., sugar chain)-specific protein immobilization strategy represents a simple and generic alternative, which is promising to apply for other glycoprotein immobilization and application. It should be noted that although the lectin we utilized can only bind to d-mannose/d-glucose, the diversity of the lectin family assures that a specific lectin could be offered for other sugar types, thus expanding the applicable scope further.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- growth factor
- sugar-lectin interaction
- surface immobilization