Because of recent state regulations and the reduced availability of free-standing tanning salons, indoor tanning (IT) prevalence is beginning to decline. Thismay lead to unintended consequences, such as increases in outdoor intentional tanning. We advance a series of research directions to track and intervene to address all forms of intentional tanning. First, we advocate for enforcement of IT regulation and encourage collection of data on tanning salon compliance and alternative IT strategies. Second, we suggest questions about outdoor and IT should be included in national surveys. Third, we need to understand the potentially complex patterns of indoor and outdoor tanning that may exist among those who tan. Fourth, research examining changing motivations for intentional tanning is needed. Finally, IT intervention studies should include outdoor tanning as an outcome to examine the effect of interventions on these related risk behaviors. These advances will ensure the development of novel interventions to address intentional tanning through multiple routes, and to avoid any unintended negative consequence of IT regulation. The promising downward direction of IT use in the United States should now lead the public health field to sharpen its focus on outdoor tanning.
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