Teacher questioning to promote justification and generalization in mathematics: What research practice has taught us

Amy M. Martino, Carolyn A. Maher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

76 Scopus citations

Abstract

This article explores the teacher's role in classroom environments that center on learning through student exploration, and reinvention, of important mathematics. In such environments, teachers will often work to create situations where students are invited to express their thinking, most especially to peers. How is this done? In the work reported here, both teacher questioning and teacher listening will play important parts, as does the teacher's background understanding of the mathematics and the children. This study focuses especially on teacher questioning in third- and fourth-grade classrooms associated with a longitudinal study now in its eleventh year. Analyses of videotaped data indicate a strong relationship between (1) careful monitoring of students' constructions leading to a problem solution, and (2) the posing of a timely question which can challenge learners to advance their understanding. What a teacher needs to know in order to work well with student explorations has important implications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-78
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Mathematical Behavior
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education
  • Applied Psychology
  • Applied Mathematics

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