The acquisition and violation of expectancy: An experimental paradigm

Michael Lewis, Susan Goldberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Scopus citations


An experiment, using 44-month-old children, was conducted wherein a repeated presentation of a stimulus (S1) was followed by a new stimulus (S2). It was predicted that attention, as measured by orientation of the head and fixation of the eyes, cardiac deceleration, smiling, and pointing, would show response decrement over repeated trials of S1 and would show response recovery to S2. The data of this experiment confirmed these hypotheses and the results are discussed in terms of the orienting reflex, emotion, and general theories of attentional processes in the young child.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)70-80
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Experimental Child Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1969
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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