The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Toddler Module: Standardized Severity Scores

Amy N. Esler, Vanessa Hus Bal, Whitney Guthrie, Amy Wetherby, Susan Ellis Weismer, Catherine Lord

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

178 Scopus citations


Standardized calibrated severity scores (CSS) have been created for Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, 2nd edition (ADOS-2) Modules 1–4 as a metric of the relative severity of autism-specific behaviors. Total and domain CSS were created for the Toddler Module to facilitate comparison to other modules. Analyses included 388 children with ASD age 12–30 months and were replicated on 435 repeated assessments from 127 children with ASD. Compared to raw scores, associations between total and domain CSS and participant characteristics were reduced in the original sample. Verbal IQ effects on Social Affect-CSS were not reduced in the replication sample. Toddler Module CSS increases comparability of ADOS-2 scores across modules and allows studies of symptom trajectories to extend to earlier ages.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2704-2720
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


  • Autism diagnostic observation schedule
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Restricted and repetitive behavior
  • Severity
  • Social affect
  • Toddlers


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