The burden of prostate cancer in Trinidad and Tobago: one of the highest mortality rates in the world

Wayne A. Warner, Tammy Y. Lee, Fang Fang, Adana A.M. Llanos, Smriti Bajracharya, Vasavi Sundaram, Kimberly Badal, Vandana Devika Sookdeo, Veronica Roach, Marjorie Lamont-Greene, Camille Ragin, Simeon Slovacek, Krishan Ramsoobhag, Jasmine Brown, Timothy R. Rebbeck, Ravi Maharaj, Bettina F. Drake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Purpose: In Trinidad and Tobago (TT), prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the leading cause of cancer deaths among men. TT currently has one of the highest CaP mortality rates in the world. Methods: 6,064 incident and 3,704 mortality cases of CaP occurring in TT from January 1995 to 31 December 2009 reported to the Dr. Elizabeth Quamina Cancer population-based cancer registry for TT, were analyzed to examine CaP survival, incidence, and mortality rates and trends by ancestry and geography. Results: The age-standardized CaP incidence and mortality rates (per 100,000) based on the 1960 world-standardized in 2009 were 64.2 and 47.1 per 100,000. The mortality rate in TT increased between 1995 (37.9 per 100,000) and 2009 (79.4 per 100,000), while the rate in the US decreased from 37.3 per 100,000 to 22.1 per 100,000 over the same period. Fewer African ancestry patients received treatment relative to those of Indian and mixed ancestry (45.7%, 60.3%, and 60.9%, respectively). Conclusions: Notwithstanding the limitations surrounding data quality, our findings highlight the increasing burden of CaP in TT and the need for improved surveillance and standard of care. Our findings highlight the need for optimized models to project cancer rates in developing countries like TT. This study also provides the rationale for targeted screening and optimized treatment for CaP to ameliorate the rates we report.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)685-697
Number of pages13
JournalCancer Causes and Control
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


  • Cancer in populations of African ancestry
  • Cancer incidence
  • Cancer mortality
  • Cancer survival
  • Caribbean
  • Geography
  • Prostate cancer
  • Trinidad and Tobago


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