The Kenics static mixer: A three-dimensional chaotic flow

D. M. Hobbs, F. J. Muzzio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

163 Scopus citations


The Kenics static mixer was investigated numerically using Lagrangian methods to characterize mixer performance for low Reynolds number flows. Particle tracking simulations were used to compute residence time distributions, striation evolution, and variation coefficient as a function of the number of mixer elements. The mixing measures calculated from the numerical simulation agree closely with reported experimental results from the literature. Stretching of material elements in the mixer flow was also computed. The average stretching of material elements increased exponentially with the number of periodic mixer segments (a signature of chaotic flows). The probability density function of the logarithm of stretching values. H(n)(log10λ), had it Gaussian distribution over the central spectrum of stretching intensities, with no deviations from the Gaussian profile at low stretching intensities, suggesting a globally chaotic flow. A significant tail of high stretching intensities was found. The spatial locations of points with the highest stretching values corresponded to the manifolds of two period-1 hyperbolic points present in the flow.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-166
Number of pages14
JournalChemical engineering journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 30 1997

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


  • Kenics static mixer
  • Three-dimensional chaotic flow

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The Kenics static mixer: A three-dimensional chaotic flow'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this