The Likert Organizational Profile: Methodological analysis and test of System 4 theory in Brazil

D. Anthony Butterfield, George F. Farris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations


Administered a 20-item Likert Organizational Profile (LOP) twice to 256 employees in 13 Brazilian development banks. Actual and ideal bank profiles were similar to those found in the US and elsewhere: employees want participative group management methods but say that their organization uses autocratic or consultative methods. Factor analyses did not yield the 6 dimensions predicted by Likert's theory; factors were only partially consistent over time and for different hierarchical levels. Retrospectives scores were accurate and were equally so for the 6-, 12-, and 18-mo time periods since the original administration. Test-retest reliability of the LOP as a whole was moderate. Bank LOP scores were unrelated to objective measures of organizational effectiveness, but were positively related to employee satisfaction. The LOP appears useful for current and retrospective organization studies, but the theory of management systems measured by it is only partially supported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15-23
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 1974
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology


  • Likert Organizational Profile, organizational effectiveness & employee satisfaction, employees in Brazilian development bank

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