The magnitude and waveform of shock waves induced by X-ray lasers in water

Claudiu Andrei Stan, Koji Motomura, Gabriel Blaj, Yoshiaki Kumagai, Yiwen Li, Daehyun You, Taishi Ono, Armin Kalita, Tadashi Togashi, Shigeki Owada, Kensuke Tono, Makina Yabashi, Tetsuo Katayama, Kiyoshi Ueda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The high energy densities deposited in materials by focused X-ray laser pulses generate shock waves which travel away from the irradiated region, and can generate complex wave patterns or induce phase changes. We determined the time-pressure histories of shocks induced by X-ray laser pulses in liquid water microdrops, by measuring the surface velocity of the microdrops from images recorded during the reflection of the shock at the surface. Measurements were made with ~30 m diameter droplets using 10 keV X-rays, for X-ray pulse energies that deposited linear energy densities from 3.5 to 120 mJ/m; measurements were also made with ~60 m diameter drops for a narrower energy range. At a distance of 15 m from the X-ray beam, the peak shock pressures ranged from 44 to 472 MPa, and the corresponding time-pressure histories of the shocks had a fast quasi-exponential decay with positive pressure durations estimated to range from 2 to 5 ns. Knowledge of the amplitude and waveform of the shock waves enables accurate modeling of shock propagation and experiment designs that either maximize or minimize the effect of shocks.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1497
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number4
StatePublished - Feb 1 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Instrumentation
  • Engineering(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


  • Laser ablation
  • Shock waves
  • X-ray lasers


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