The Near Response: Modeling, Instrumentation, and Clinical Applications

George K. Hung, John L. Semmlow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


The complex task of focusing, verging of the two eyes, and constriction of the pupil is accomplished by a network of oculomotor systems. The accommodation system senses blur of the retinal image and controls the lens curvature to keep the image of the target in focus. The vergence system detects disparity between the retinal images in the two eyes and controls the rotation of the two eyes to bring about a single visual percept. The pupillary system works in conjunction with the accommodation and vergence systems, but is essentially open loop. This review will cite some of the important bioengineering contributions in modeling, instrumentation, and clinical applications to each of the above oculomotor systems over the past 25 years. These major innovations have helped to provide a better means of measuring the oculomotor responses and have unproved our understanding of these systems in isolation as well as their mutual interactions. This further clarified our understanding of defects in a system that led to clinical abnormalities. The continued advances offered by bioengineering will aid further in our understanding of oculomotor deficits and their treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)910-919
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1984

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomedical Engineering


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