The necessary and sufficient conditions for motor learning, recognition, and recall

Arnold L. Glass, Jonathan Krejci, Jonathan Goldman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The first experiment paired four kinds of study tasks with three kinds of retrieval tests. Verbal repetition of a digit string produced motor facilitation without perceptual recognition, while, conversely, repeated perceptual processing of the digit string produced perceptual recognition of it without motor facilitation. Furthermore, perceptual and verbal repetition did not produce recall. Only repeated active retrieval attempts produced recall of the digit string, thus establishing the separate existence of the semantic code. In the second experiment, recognition memory declined faster following a task that did not involve the active retrieval of the digit string than one that did. These results extend the domain of the encoding specificity principle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-199
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Memory and Language
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1989

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Artificial Intelligence


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