The placenta is the lifeline between the mother and the fetus. When there is a disturbance of this lifeline, the neonate may be born smaller than expected. In modern pediatric practice, there are two types of small neonates at the time of birth: those who are born too early and are classically defined as premature or those that are born smaller than expected for gestational age or intrauterine growth retarded. Intrauterine growth retardation is defined as a neonate who is born at less than the 10th percentile for their gestational age. While one would assume there are many etiologies of intrauterine growth retardation, at the most basic level, the causes can generally be broken down into two: infectious etiologies and noninfectious etiologies. While infectious causes are likely more numerous and better known, this chapter will explore the changes in the placenta in noninfectious causes of the intrauterine growth-retarded neonate as related to the mother, the fetus, and the placenta itself, including such topics as preeclampsia, anemia, hemoglobinopathies, thrombophilias, collagen vascular diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus and scleroderma, chromosomal disorders including trisomies 21 and 18, fetal thrombotic vasculopathy, and alloimmune disorders. The normal placenta will be described at the gross and microscopic levels. This chapter will also explore some of the molecular advances in relation to placental pathology.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease|
|Publisher||Springer New York|
|Number of pages||26|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2012|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes