Aims: Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative stress is associated with inflammation, and the cellular redox status can determine the sensitivity and the final outcome in response to inflammatory stimuli. To control the redox balance, mammalian cells contain a variety of oxidoreductases belonging to the thioredoxin superfamily. The large number of these enzymes suggests a complex mechanism of redox regulation in mammals, but the precise function of each family member awaits further investigations. Results: We generated mice deficient in transmembrane thioredoxin-related protein (TMX), a transmembrane oxidoreductase in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). When exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and d-(+)-galactosamine (GalN) to induce inflammatory liver injury, mutant mice were highly susceptible to the toxicants and developed severe liver damage. LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators was equivalent in both wild-type and TMX-/- mice, whereas neutralization of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α suppressed the toxic effects of LPS/GalN in the mutant mice. Liver transcriptional profiles revealed enhanced activation of the p53-signaling pathway in the TMX -/- mice after LPS/GalN treatment. Furthermore, TMX deficiency also caused increased sensitivity to thioacetamide, which exerts its hepatotoxicity through the generation of reactive oxygen species. Innovation: The present study is the first to address the role of the oxidoreductase TMX in inflammatory liver injury. The phenotype of mice deficient in TMX suggests a functional link between redox regulation in the ER and susceptibility to oxidative tissue damage. Conclusion: We conclude that TMX plays a major role in host defense under the type of inflammatory conditions associated with oxidative stress. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1263-1272.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Cell Biology