The Rapid Prediction of Focal Wavefront Origins: Integration With a 3-Dimensional Mapping System

Deepak Saluja, Tal Bar-on, Gal Hayam, John Kassotis, William J. Kostis, James Coromilas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: This study assessed the accuracy of an algorithm that predicts the origin of focal arrhythmias using a limited number of data points. Background: Despite advances in technology, ablations can be time-consuming, and activation mapping continues to have inherent limitations. The authors developed an algorithm that can predict the origin of a focal wavefront using the location and activation timing information in 2 pairs of sampled points. This algorithm was incorporated into an electroanatomic mapping (EAM) system to assess its accuracy in a 3-dimensional clinical environment. Methods: EAM data from patients who underwent successful ablation of a focal wavefront using the CARTO3 system were loaded onto an offline version of the software modified to contain the algorithm. Prediction curves were retrospectively generated. Predictive accuracy, defined as the distance between true and predicted origin wavefront origins, was measured. Results: Seventeen wavefronts in as many patients (2 with atrial tachycardia, 3 with orthodromic re-entrant tachycardia, 8 with premature ventricular complex and/or ventricular tachycardia, 4 with focal pulmonary vein isolation breakthroughs) were studied. Thirty-three origin predictions were attempted (1.9 ± 0.4 per patient) using 132 points. Predictions were successfully calculated in 31 of 33 (93.9%) attempts and were accurate to within 5.7 ± 6.9 mm. Individual prediction curves were accurate to within 3.0 ± 4.7 mm. Conclusions: Focal wavefront origins may be accurately predicted in 3 dimensions using a novel algorithm incorporated into an EAM system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1478-1487
Number of pages10
JournalJACC: Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Nov 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


  • arrhythmia
  • conduction velocity
  • electroanatomic mapping
  • mapping algorithms
  • wavefronts

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