The relation of personality types to physiological, behavioural, and cognitive processes

Daniel Hart, Debra Burock, Bonita London, Robert Atkins, Gloria Bonilla-Santiago

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


Three personality types, labeled resilient, over-controlled, and under-controlled, were identified through cluster analysis of classroom observations of 63 children, and used to understand biological, cognitive, and behavioural processes that influence academic achievement and aggression. Resilient children were found to be high in trait cortisol and high in academic achievement. Under-controlled and over-controlled children showed the greatest change in cortisol levels under stress, low levels of academic achievement, and attributed hostility to others in ambiguous situations. Under-controlled children also exhibited high levels of externalizing behaviour in the classroom. The findings suggest that the single processes or traits assessed in this study do not mediate the associations of personality types to academic achievement and behaviour. The implications of the findings for the personality type construct and for personality processes are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)391-407
Number of pages17
JournalEuropean Journal of Personality
Issue number5
StatePublished - Aug 2005

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Social Psychology


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