The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

Andrew H. Paterson, John E. Bowers, Rémy Bruggmann, Inna Dubchak, Jane Grimwood, Heidrun Gundlach, Georg Haberer, Uffe Hellsten, Therese Mitros, Alexander Poliakov, Jeremy Schmutz, Manuel Spannagl, Haibao Tang, Xiyin Wang, Thomas Wicker, Arvind K. Bharti, Jarrod Chapman, F. Alex Feltus, Udo Gowik, Igor V. GrigorievEric Lyons, Christopher A. Maher, Mihaela Martis, Apurva Narechania, Robert P. Otillar, Bryan W. Penning, Asaf A. Salamov, Yu Wang, Lifang Zhang, Nicholas C. Carpita, Michael Freeling, Alan R. Gingle, C. Thomas Hash, Beat Keller, Patricia Klein, Stephen Kresovich, Maureen C. McCann, Ray Ming, Daniel G. Peterson, Mehboob-Ur-Rahman, Doreen Ware, Peter Westhoff, Klaus F.X. Mayer, Joachim Messing, Daniel S. Rokhsar

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Abstract

Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the ∼730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing ∼98% of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the ∼75% larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization ∼70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum-rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24% of genes are grass-specific and 7% are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)551-556
Number of pages6
JournalNature
Volume457
Issue number7229
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 29 2009

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Paterson, A. H., Bowers, J. E., Bruggmann, R., Dubchak, I., Grimwood, J., Gundlach, H., Haberer, G., Hellsten, U., Mitros, T., Poliakov, A., Schmutz, J., Spannagl, M., Tang, H., Wang, X., Wicker, T., Bharti, A. K., Chapman, J., Feltus, F. A., Gowik, U., ... Rokhsar, D. S. (2009). The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses. Nature, 457(7229), 551-556. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07723