The use of force against non-state actors: all over the map

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This short article considers the informal ‘Arria formula’ meeting of the United Nations Security Council convened by Mexico in February 2021. It offers a compressed analysis of many of the statements made during that meeting regarding the substantive issue of inter-state force against non-state actors, identifies important areas of disagreement, and concludes with some observations on the current state of the law and the path forward.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)278-290
Number of pages13
JournalJournal on the Use of Force and International Law
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Political Science and International Relations
  • Law


  • Arria formula
  • non-state actors
  • Security Council
  • Self-defence


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