Successful immunotherapy of cocaine addiction and overdoses requires cocaine-binding antibodies with specific properties, such as high affinity and selectivity for cocaine. We have determined the affinities of two cocaine-binding murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb: clones 3P1A6 and MM0240PA) for cocaine and its metabolites by [3H]-radioligand binding assays. mAb 3P1A6 (Kd = 0.22 nM) displayed a 50-fold higher affinity for cocaine than mAb MM0240PA (Kd = 11 nM) and also had a greater specificity for cocaine. For the systematic exploration of both antibodies' binding specificities, we used a set of approximately 35 cocaine analogues as structural probes by determining their relative binding affinities (RBAs) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent competition assay. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) models on the basis of comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) techniques correlated the binding data with structural features of the ligands. The analysis indicated that despite the mAbs' differing specificities for cocaine, the relative contributions of the steric (∼80%) and electrostatic (∼20%) field interactions to ligand-binding were similar. Generated three-dimensional CoMFA contour plots then located the specific regions about cocaine where the ligand/receptor interactions occurred. While the overall binding patterns of the two mAbs had many features in common, distinct differences were observed about the phenyl ring and the methylester group of cocaine. Furthermore, using previously published data, a 3D-QSAR model was developed for cocaine binding to the dopamine reuptake transporter (DAT) that was compared to the mAb models. Although the relative steric and electrostatic field contributions were similar to those of the mAbs, the DAT cocaine-binding site showed a preference for negatively charged ligands. Besides establishing molecular level insight into the interactions that govern cocaine binding specificity by biopolymers, the three-dimensional images obtained reflect the properties of the mAbs binding pockets and provide the initial information needed for the possible design of novel antibodies with properties optimized for immunotherapy.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Structural Biology
- Molecular Biology
- Cocaine binding
- Monoclonal antibodies