The purpose of this review article is to examine previous and ongoing studies of thymalfasin in combination with peginterferon-α2a and peginterferon-α2a plus ribavirin in difficult-to-treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. The following studies will be reviewed in detail: (1) Sherman and colleagues conducted a study in 109 HCV RNA positive HVC patients comparing the combination of thymalfasin + IFN versus IFN alone versus placebo. (2) Rustgi et al. evaluated the efficacy and safety of thymalfasin and peg-IFN-α2a in 31 genotype 1, high viral load, HCV nonresponders in a 12-week viral kinetic study. (3) Di Bisceglie, Sherman et al. performed a study of previous HCV nonresponders being retreated with either peginterferon-α2a plus thymalfasin or peginterferon-α2a plus placebo. (4) Poo and colleagues in Mexico evaluated triple combination therapy using thymalfasin, peginterferon-α2a, and ribavirin for the treatment of Hispanic HCV nonresponders.