Tissue engineered human skin equivalents

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

70 Scopus citations


Human skin not only serves as an important barrier against the penetration of exogenous substances into the body, but also provides a potential avenue for the transport of functional active drugs/reagents/ingredients into the skin (topical delivery) and/or the body (transdermal delivery). In the past three decades, research and development in human skin equivalents have advanced in parallel with those in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The human skin equivalents are used commercially as clinical skin substitutes and as models for permeation and toxicity screening. Several academic laboratories have developed their own human skin equivalent models and applied these models for studying skin permeation, corrosivity and irritation, compound toxicity, biochemistry, metabolism and cellular pharmacology. Various aspects of the state of the art of human skin equivalents are reviewed and discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)26-41
Number of pages16
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science


  • Human skin equivalents
  • Regenerative medicine
  • Skin grafts
  • Skin models
  • Tissue engineering

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