Tobacco Outlet Density and Demographics: A Geographically Weighted Regression Analysis

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12 Scopus citations


Previous studies have indicated that tobacco outlets seem to be clustered in low-income minority neighborhoods. This study utilized a cross-sectional design to examine the relationships among minority status, median household income, population density, commercial land use, and location of tobacco outlets at the census tract level in Polk County, Iowa. Using geographically weighted regression, this study re-examines one previously carried out in the same location by Schneider et al. (Prevention Science 6: 319-325, 2005). Contrary to that and some other previous studies, this research found no relationship between tobacco outlet density and percent Hispanic, and found a negative relationship with regard to two variables-that of being African American and median household income. Positive significant relationships were found with population density and land use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)462-471
Number of pages10
JournalPrevention Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


  • African Americans
  • Geographically weighted regression
  • Hispanics
  • Tobacco and demographics
  • Tobacco outlets


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